Vitamin B-6 is found as 3 forms: pyridoxine hydrochloride [2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4,
5-bis (hydroxy-methyl) pyridine], pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. About 70-80% of
the vitamin B-6 in the body is located in muscle bound to glycogen phosphorylase,
an enzyme involved in releasing glucose from glycogen. About 10% is located
in the liver. The remainder is distributed among the other tissues. Vitamin
B-6 is one of the most versatile enzyme cofactors. It is involved in breaking
more types of chemical bonds than most cofactors. It is listed in Enzyme Nomenclature
as a component of approximately 120 enzymes including at least one entry in
5 of the 6 major enzyme classes. Pyridoxal phosphate is a cofactor in the metabolism
of amino acids and neurotransmitters and in the breakdown of glycogen. Pyridoxal
phosphate can bind to steroid hormone receptors and may have a role in regulating
steroid hormone action. Pyridoxal phosphate plays a role in the immune system;
thus adequate intake is important. 4-pyridoxic acid is the major excretory product.
Alterations in the function of the nervous system evidenced by electroencephalography
are among the earst symptoms of vitamin B-6 deficiency. Severe deficiency may
produce seizures, dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, angular stomatitis and anemia.
Frank deficiencies are rare, but subclinical deficiencies may exist, especially
in women and the elderly.
Pyridoxine-dependent seizures and some types of sideroblastic anemias respond
to vitamin B-6 supplementation. Vitamin B-6 supplements may be required in conjunction
with a number of drugs which have the side-effect of altering vitamin B-6 metabolism.
Increased concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate in plasma are used as one of
the criteria for diagnosing hypophosphatasia. Because vitamin B-6 metabolism
is altered in a variety of disease states, there have been occasional suggestions
that vitamin B-6 supplements may be beneficial in many conditions. However,
at this time there is no consensus that vitamin B-6 is beneficial in conditions
other than certain genetic defects.
White meats (poultry, fish, pork), bananas and whole grains are good sources
of vitamin B-6. A glucoside form of pyridoxine in certain plant (not animal)
products may limit availability of B-6.
Excessive acute or chronic exposure to vitamin B-6 can be neurotoxic. It appears
that in most individuals oral intakes of less than 500 mg/day can be tolerated.
Larger intakes should be avoided. Because individuals may vary in their susceptibility
to toxicity, a physician should monitor intakes in excess of the Recommended
Daily Allowances listed above.
Current studies involve the bioavailability of pyridoxine glycosides, which
can account for a significant fraction of the vitamin B-6 in some plant products;
improved methods of assessing vitamin B-6 status and requirements; and alterations
in vitamin B-6 metabolism in various pathological conditions.
For further information:
Leklem, J.E. (1990) Vitamin B6. In: Handbook of Vitamins
(I.J. Machlin, ed.), 2nd ed. pp. 341-392. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
Raiten, D.J. ed. (1995) Vitamin B6 Metabolism in Pregnancy,
Lactation, and Infancy. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Vitamin B-6 (as pyridoxine)
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Functions of Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine)
1. Necessary for proper assimilation of Vitamin B-12.
2. Aids in the production of hydrochloric acid.
3. Required in the metabolism of many amino acids.
4. Involved in the metabolism of fats, especially the unsaturated fatty
5. Necessary for the conversion of tryptophan to niacin.
6. Helps to maintain the sodium/potassium balance.
7. Facilitates glycogen conversion to glucose.
8. Must be present for the production of antibodies and red blood cells.
9. Involved in proper synthesis and activity of DNA and RNA.
Deficiency Symptoms of Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine)
2. Numbness of hands and feet.
3. Over production of xanthurenic acid (green-colored urine).
4. Low blood sugar and low glucose tolerance.
5. Cramps in the extremities.
6. Dizziness, nausea, vomiting.
7. Kidney stones.
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in 1936 knew COLLOIDAL MINERALS
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